Abstract: In 2013, students and teachers s of the Shakhty Ya.P. Baklanov Cossack Cadet Corps have found in the Tarasovsky district of the Rostov region the graves of three heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812, the Don Cossack generals – Lieutenant General A.A. Karpov, Major General P.M. Grekov and Major General G.A. Dyachkin. During the revolution of 1917, their former graves were destroyed and looted. At the site of their former burials, students found randomly lying bodies mixed with construction debris. Currently, the process of identifying the discovered remains is underway. When this process is completed, the Don generals will be buried according to their status and merits. This article gives a brief biography of one of these undeservedly forgotten heroes. Exploring his life path, we found a number of problems related to the life of the Don Cossack elite.
Abstract: The name of Vasily Ivanovich Tumansky, a popular poet of the 20-30s of the 20th century, a friend of Pushkin, Kukhelbeker, Ryleev, Baratynsky, was forgotten, and his works were not published for more than a hundred years. However, he deserves research attention. His first poem, “The Field of the Battle of Borodino”, was published in the journal “Syn Otechestva” (“Son of the Fatherland”), known for its proximity to future Decembrists. An important place in the poem took the topic of enlightenment and the idea of general welfare. Tumansky borrowed a combination of educational didactics with sensitivity from German philosophy and German sentimentalism. However, the problems that the novice poet solves suggest that he felt the spirit of free thought that most of the Russian noble youth were imbued with. When Tumansky was going to go to France, the capital of European liberalism of the time, Baratynsky wrote a poem addressed to him, “T-mu (In the album)”, which was an evidence of the friendship of the two poets and the support of the Tumansky by the Free Society of Lovers of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
Abstract: The concept of “national idea” appeared in the 19th century and became the subject of many discussions. The national idea itself appeared much earlier: its origins can be found in folklore and early texts of ancient Russian literature. In fiction, the national idea is expressed in the following aspects: geopolitical, religious, philosophical, historical. In this article, we analyze the genesis of this concept in ancient Russian monuments – “The Sermon of Law and Grace”, “The Tale of Bygone Years”, “The Word about Igor’s Campaign”, “The Teachings of Vladimir Monomakh”, “The Tale of the Destruction of Ryazan by Batu”. The national idea of the “Sermon of Law and Grace” is connected with the issues of the independence of Russia from Byzantium, the continuity of the Orthodox tradition in Russia, and belief in the supreme purpose of Russia and the Russian people. “The Tale of Bygone Years” reflects the national idea in connection with the construction and strengthening of the Russian state and the prophecy about the historical fate of the Fatherland. The center of the “Word about Igor’s Campaign” and “The Story of the Destruction of Ryazan by Batu” is the idea of uniting the Russian lands and the forces of the people in the fight against external enemies. The content of the “Teachings of Vladimir Monomakh” is the instructions of the prince, which highlight the spiritual and moral principles that bind the Orthodox people. Monuments of Old Russian literature in many ways lay a solid foundation for the further development and comprehension of this issue in fiction, journalistic, philosophical literature.
Abstract: The article analyzes the publications of the daily newspaper Rada dedicated to the national movements on the borderlands of the Russian Empire. The newspaper was published in Kiev from 1906 until the outbreak of the First World War. It was the most influential Ukrainian-language newspaper in Russia. The most interesting are the publications of 1913–1914, when the newspaper had a separate regular column “From the life of non-Russian nations”, which described the cultural life of most noticeable ethnic groups of the Russian Empire: Belarusians, Moldovans, the peoples of the Transcaucasia, Siberia, the Baltic and Volga regions. At the same time, such large national movements as Polish and Finnish became the object of attention of Ukrainian publicists relatively rarely, which emphasized their special position in the ethno-social hierarchy of the non-Russian peoples of the Empire. The articles of the column were usually based on the reprints from other, as a rule, Russian, newspapers, as well as on the reports from the own Rada’s correspondents. The newspaper publicists tried to look for the features that united the Ukrainian national movement and the movements of other peoples of Russia, as well as examples of the successful implementation of the cultural and educational undertakings. Comparison of the Rada’s materials with other sources allows us to determine the degree of completeness of the description of a particular non-Russian question, as well as to reveal distortions, inaccuracies and factual errors.
Abstract: The article presents the analysis of the social consequences of earthquakes in the Crimea (southern coast) that occurred in June and September 1927 and the elimination measures taken by the Soviet leadership. The September earthquake had disastrous social and economic consequences. The total damage from the destruction was estimated at 44 million rubles. The Yalta and Sevastopol regions of Crimea suffered the greatest damage. The local peasants, who lost their homes, as a result of a natural disaster, found themselves in a disastrous situation. The situation was exacerbated by an increase in infectious diseases and a lack of medical care, which led to an epidemic that killed hundreds of people. Medical, educational, sanatoria and health resorts and housing resources suffered significant damage. The situation in Crimea was complicated by crop failure. The measures taken by the Soviet leadership to eliminate the consequences of the disaster were of an all-Union character. Humanitarian aid came from various regions, including through the media covering the tragedy.
Abstract: Thу publication continues a series of works by the authors devoted to the fleets of small enterprises in Udmurtia. The purpose of this article is to study the composition and evolution of the fleet of the “Udmurtles” Churovskiy logging enterprise. On the basis of a critical comparison of the logging enterprise’s own documentation, currently stored in the archive sector of the Yakshur-Bodya village administration, and Udmurtles’ documentation from the Central State Archive of the Udmurt Republic it is shown that from 1952 to 1957 the enterprise had two vessels: the boat “Lesnik” (type T-63) and the self-propelled passenger barge “Otvazhny” (type T-81 P). The other vessels mentioned in the documentation were probably only formally listed at the timber company. Most likely the “Lesnik” later became the boat “Moryak” of the Izhevsk exploitation office.
Abstract: The publication is based on the author’s memories of three years spent in a Cossack khutor in 1979–1982 and turned into a kind of ethnographic “field”, which provided extensive material for the subsequent understanding of how the Cossack population organized their daily life in the era of the so-called Soviet “stagnation”. The peculiarity of the publication, which conventionally fits into the genre of “notes”, is that the author appears in it simultaneously in two hypostases: a person recalling and commenting. The first part of the publication presents two main topics: the life support practices of the inhabitants of the Cossack khutor during the “stagnation” and the authorities (official and unofficial) in the structure of everyday life. The analysis of his own memories led the author to the conclusion that there are two kinds of authorities in the minds of the farmers: “not their own” (which they write complaints-claims, and also express claims in an open form) and “ours”, in relation to which there was a kind of code of honor and a special behavior model. A clear division of the inhabitants of the settlement into “us”, “strangers” and “not friends” was also decisive in the formation of the life support practices of its inhabitants, which assumed different models of behavior in relation to these groups. The inhabitants of the settlement behaved differently in its different zones of its space: “not their own” territory could be plundered, and “own” was carefully guarded from strangers. At the same time, products, in the production or extraction of which their own labor was invested (even if it was the state collective farm sphere), as in the previous Cossack tradition, was recognized as “common” and was freely redistributed among “our own”. All these ideas and practices persisted during the long Soviet period of the country's history, having survived safely until the collapse of the USSR.
Abstract: Currently, computer games occupy an increasing place in the leisure of certain segments of the population. Thousands of specialists sometimes work on their creation, and there are already dozens of specializations in the gaming industry. But what are these people inspired by and what images do they put into their works? How is the collective memory of historical events reflected in games? In the search for answers to these questions, the author of the article aims to examine the images of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht that have developed in computer games about the Great Patriotic War, to determine their relationship and the sources of their formation. Games from Europe, the USA, Canada (group I) and the countries formed on the territory of the former USSR (group II) are analyzed, since in them, on the one hand, the sphere of the game industry is quite developed, and on the other hand, there is a certain demand among the population for products about the Second World War and the Great Patriotic War. It turns out that in such games as Call of Duty, Company of Heroes 2, etc., which are in group I, developers often use the image of the Red Army, where many ordinary employees are ready to defend the Motherland, are pretentious and full of hatred for the enemy. Similar features in these games are inherent in the command staff, but the latter is also able to unnecessarily sacrifice their own soldiers in the name of orders and ideology. These games can be partly contrasted with the image of the Red Army in the games of group II (Blitzkrieg, Chernye bushlaty, etc.), where the soldiers are also brave and capable of self-sacrifice, but the command has the necessary competence and a clear mind. Both movies and the works of historians during the Cold War are the sources of the formation of negative ideas about the Red Army. The study found that the image of the Wehrmacht in the games of both groups is similar. The actions of the Wehrmacht provoke a backlash from the protagonists of the products of the game industry.