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«Русская старина» – исторический научный журнал.

E-ISSN 2409-2118
Периодичность – 2 раза в год.
Издается с 2010 года.

2 December 03, 2019

Articles and Statements

1. Marina Ch. Larionova, Alexey S. Tishchenko
The Theme of «The Russian World» in the Old Russian Literature

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 86-94.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.86CrossRef

The notion and idea of «the Russian World» has been actively used in the modern social life. At the same time, the content and boundaries of these notion and idea have become the subject of discussions. There are no specific works devoted to the idea of «The Russian World» in the Russian literature. The article gives an analysis of the genesis of the notion in the ancient Russian written monuments «The Sermon on Law and Grace», «The Tale of Bygone Years», «The Word of Igor’s Campaign». The phrase «The Russian World» appeared for the first time in «The Word on the Renewal of the Tithe Church» (the second half of the 11th century) with the meaning of the unification of people, which is based on certain spiritual values. In «The Word of Law and Grace» the theme of the Russian World appears along with the theme of the adoption of the Christianity and the independence of the Russian Church. The historical fate of the Russian land, its political independence became the content of «The Tale of Bygone Years». In «The Word of Igor’s Campaign», the idea of «The Russian World» is consonant with the general idea of this work – the unification of the Russian lands, which is expressed by Prince Svyatoslav in his «golden word». Thus, the idea of «the Russian World» has been permanent in the national literature (since its inception). Nowadays, it has become especially relevant in the connection with geopolitical events. This is a living and vital phenomenon which requires further studies.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575383861.pdf
Number of views: 656      Download in PDF

2. Olga V. Bogdanova
The Problems of Modern Interpretations of Classical Texts (“Captain’s Daughter” by A. Pushkin at School and University)

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 95-107.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.95CrossRef

In the article on the example of the text of the novel “Captain’s Daughter” by A. Pushkin the author demonstrates how axiological perspectives of classical literary works change in modern conditions, how in a modern school can be more interesting and more deeply interpreted axiomatic material repeatedly studied and subjected to understanding in different years. In particular, the article considers the images of the central characters of Pushkin’s novel – Pyotr Grinev and Alexei Shvabrin. The article shows how two characters – Grinev and Shvabrin – stood out in Pushkin’s manuscripts from the original single and integral image of the main character of the novel. However, in contrast to the existing tradition, which considers these heroes of “Captain’s Daughter” as antagonist heroes, in this work these images are qualified as twin heroes with a common ideological root. The study shows that the image of Grinev undoubtedly bears the features of an autobiographical hero, for example, in those circumstances when the first chapter of the novel tells the story of the childhood of the central character. However, before the researchers did not pay attention to the fact that the image of Shvabrin is also accompanied by portrait details and features that have a connection with the personality of the real Pushkin, the creator of the novel. For example, at the first appearance of the hero Shvabrin in front of Grinev (and the reader) draw attention to the characteristic features of Pushkin’s portrait (curly dark hair, dark skin, short stature, fluent knowledge of French, the vitality of nature). As the novel progresses, it becomes clear that the writer deliberately gives the characters similar features, actually equalizes and likens the characters. Pushkin consciously detects the contradictory nature of each of the characters, placing them in a similar situation, pushing in a conflict – “love triangle”. Thus, Pushkin actually demonstrates the techniques of auto-psychoanalysis. Through the images of paired characters, the author disavows the duality of each person’s nature, discovers dual impulses within the personality of one person, each of us (including himself). Form of narrative in novel is memoirs, diaries, memories. This narrative form prompted the author to ensure that a single and integral image of a complex character broke up in the end into two simplified images that appeared more understandable to the consciousness and perception of the character-narrator Petrusha Grinev. The last statement does not mean that Pushkin was going to whitewash the person or to justify behavior of the hero Alexey Shvabrin. In the end, his image still comes in the text of the memoir to a negative evaluation. However, Pushkin’s ability to maintain the capacity of the character of the individual character, to abandon the primitive classic division into positive and negative characters, the ability to see in different characters antinomic phenomenon properties enriches the perception of the novel (including the image of Shvabrin).

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575383918.pdf
Number of views: 632      Download in PDF

3. Andrei V. Venkov
Attribution of the Property Status of the Don Officers and Cossacks by the Don Military Structures in Early 19th century

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 108-119.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.108CrossRef

In 1805, during the war with Napoleon, a Russian landing detachment was sent to the coast of Pomerania, but was caught in a storm, and some of the ships sank. Among the drowned, there were 92 Don Cossacks. The emperor Alexander I decided to compensate for the losses of the families of the victims and asked the leadership of the Don Cossacks, what could be the amount of compensation. The Don leadership requested the local authorities, and they gave a report about the property of the deceased Cossacks and their families. Based on these data, the Don Cossacks governing body gave a characteristic of the described farms – “completely poor”, “poor”, “insufficient”, “mediocre” and “sufficient”. The proposed article compares the property of the Cossack families and the characteristics that the Don Cossack leaders gave them in order to determine what criteria they were guided by in determining the level of the economy. It turned out that the they accounted the number of cattle, sheep, the availability and quality of housing, the number of children and able-bodied men in the family, the number of horses allowing the Cossacks to gather for service, and the presence of an orchard or grape garden. Assessing the property status of the family, the military administration proceeded from practical considerations – the possibility of feeding the family and the opportunity to gather for service. The Don Officers and the Don Cossacks in the property relation were estimated by uniform criteria.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575383969.pdf
Number of views: 651      Download in PDF

4. Olga A. Shepeleva
Traditional Folk Worldview and Its Coverage in Local Periodicals

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 120-130.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.120CrossRef

The article considers the traditional folk superstitions, omens, rituals, which are actual nowadays in the Upper Don area in the aspect of their interpretation on the pages of local periodicals of the 19th century. The author draws attention to the fact that some folk beliefs in the newspaper are often assessed negatively as primitive. In the periodicals of this time, the poetry of folk life was presented as a consequence of the lack of education and enlightenment. During the research, the traditional notions functioning today were revealed and compared with their newspaper interpretations. The materials for the study are the records of international folklore and ethnographic expeditions to the Upper Don at the beginning of the 21st century, cases from the State Archives of Rostov region, as well as samples from the newspaper “Donskoi golos” (“The Voice of Don”) for two years (1880 and 1881). The results of the work shows that the points of intersection exist in the different spheres of the folklore: superstition and omens, religiosity, folk medicine and disease, causing rain, choice of a place for housebuilding, etc.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384011.pdf
Number of views: 673      Download in PDF

5. Svetlana G. Batyreva
Kalmyk Collection of Felt Products from the Funds of the Russian Museum of Ethnography

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 131-137.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.131CrossRef

Systematic accounting of cultural heritage, collected, stored and multiplied in the process of recruiting funds, is the basis of the formation of the museum collections, which are considered the source base for the study of traditional culture. The solution of this problem corresponds to the state policy designated as “Preservation of objects of cultural heritage of the peoples of the Russian Federation”. The crucial conditions of its realization are “Preservation of Museum Fund and development of museums” and “Publication of full scientific catalogues of Museum collections”. Information is the essence of museology based on the research combining the sphere of acquisition, accounting and storage of collections as well as the scientific activity. The information about the exhibits includes: title, dimension, material, technique, time of manufacture and other parameters of the museum description used in the process of studying of the cultural heritage. This defines museum work as a task of national significance in the preservation of heritage. the material of artistic crafts of Mongolian peoples is of a great scientific interest. This article deals with the traditional Kalmyk felt products stored in the funds of the Russian Museum of Ethnography (St. Petersburg). The purpose and objectives of the study of these collections are to introduce into the scientific circulation an information about the various museum collections of Russia, and systematically describe the material, which is being undertaken for the first time; the objects of analysis are the exhibits of the felt collection of the Russian Museum of Ethnography.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384059.pdf
Number of views: 643      Download in PDF

6. Tatyana Yu. Vlaskina
Mythopoietic Ideas about the Disease in the Oral Tradition of Nekrasov Cossac

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 138-147.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.138CrossRef

The article deals with the consideration of ideas about the disease in the oral tradition of Nekrasov Cossacks. A variety of published and unpublished sources are used as the research information base. Field materials of the Don folklorist F.V. Tumilevich is the subject of close attention along with the data collected later. The image of the disease appears to be a complex and continuously evolving structure in the light of a comprehensive analysis. It combines several semantic layers that appeared in connection with ancient and new circumstances. The archaic ideas about the introduction of the harmful demons into a person are the basis of the concept of disease. Nekrasov Cossacks believed that disease was a challenge or a punishment from God as well. Empirical experience, new knowledge are woven into old ideas and become a part of the image of the disease over time. The image of the disease reflects the features of the historical path of the Nekrasov Cossacks and the complexity of the transition from the mythological way of perceiving the world to the scientific one.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384112.pdf
Number of views: 671      Download in PDF

7. Maria A. Andrunina
Three Functions of Fire in Slavic Funeral Rite: the Illumination, the Purification, the Way to the Other World (on Polesye Data)

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 148-156.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.148CrossRef

At first sight it seems that in big and manifold structure of the Slavic funeral the role of fire is far from being main, although it presents in many forms in all ritual stages: candles burn in hands of dying person or around him, embers from hearth avert evil spirits from the dwelling, by the means of bonfire belongings of dead are delivered to him to the other world and so on. The data gathered in Polesye region shows that all functions of the fire in all its possible incarnations and means (candles, wax from them, bonfires, embers and ashes, fire of oven, sometimes also oven itself and associated tools — pokers etc.) can be reduced to three main themes, governed by ancient mythological and practical meanings: the illumination, the purification from death and the making of symbolical path for the soul of deceased leading him or her to the other world. Again, all these functions and notions are not strictly divided from each other and are not simple and one-dimensional in ritual time and space, all of them are interlaced and combined, sometimes producing new themes, for instance, in remembrance cycle, fire has also the meaning of warming the dead ancestors and bringing them back to life. Over the all meanings and functions of fire in burial rites the symbolism of the psychopomp prevails and it significant in other occasional rites and practices, for example, for finding the body of drowned person the lighted candle inserted in bread loaf is used, which is thought by natives to swim directly to the place there the body is and stay there. So all ranks of mentioned fire connected rites, practices, meanings and beliefs make the symbolism of it capital in funeral (along with the earth and the water), unquestionably archaic and it can be still living possible reminiscences of old cremation customs.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384164.pdf
Number of views: 635      Download in PDF

8. Tatyana E. Grevtsova
The Best Man in the Wedding Ceremonies in the Don Region: Functions and Terminology

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 157-172.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.157CrossRef

The article deals with the ritual functions and names of the best man of the wedding ritual on the territory of the Rostov and Volgograd regions, which before the revolution were a part of the Province of the Don Cossack Host. In the Don wedding, the duties of the master of the wedding ceremonies were usually performed by one person, who had to possess certain qualities and could have different social and age characteristics. He differed from the rest of the guests by the formal marking of some attribute (scarf, ribbon, flower, etc.). On the one hand, this participant of the wedding was a rite “double” of the groom and acted on his behalf, and on the other hand, he protected the groom and later the newlyweds both during the real, spatial movement, and during the “transformation” of unmarried young people into a married couple. The actions of the best man on the Don, as well as those of the Slavs in general, are aimed at the successful performance of the ritual and the transition of the newlyweds to a new status, the culmination points of which are focused on the day of the wedding. The names of this person with the root druž- prevail in the Don dialects, which are also widespread in other East Slavic regions. Less used terms and their areas may indicate the peculiarities of the history of settlement of the Don region, in which both natives of different parts of the Russian Empire and Little Russia peasants participated. The lexical map compiled by the author based on unpublished expedition materials and published sources shows the areal distribution of the names of the best man in the Don dialects.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384532.pdf
Number of views: 631      Download in PDF

9. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Anatoly N. Loshkarev, Svetlana L. Bautina
Shipboard Structure’s Reconstruction of the Izhevsk Operational Office/ Izhevsk Pier in 1948–1986

Russkaya Starina, 2019, 10(2): 173-182.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2019.2.173CrossRef

Basing on the statistical reports, personnel documentation and operational reports, the evolution of the shipboard structure of the Izhevsk operational office/Izhevsk pier has been reconstructed. These sources show that in 1948–1953 the Izhevsk office actually monopolized transportation along the Izhevsk Pond, eventually becoming the enterprise with the largest fleet. Since 1954, the process of technical re-equipment began in it. Since 1962, in pursuit of a decrease in loss ratio, a sharp decrease in the number of ships of the Izhevsk Pier occurred. As an element of increasing profitability, from the mid-1960-s for passenger traffic, the widespread use of non-self-propelled boats began. Starting from the late 1970's due to the increase of the road network and the development of motor transport, water transport had to be reoriented for tourist and recreational purposes. The transfer in 2019 of the Izhevsk Peir to the Gorky’s Summer Garden balance consolidated this state of affairs.

URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384339.pdf
Number of views: 682      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1575384357.pdf
Number of views: 702      Download in PDF

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