Abstract: This article studies the origin and development of the protection procedures for historical and cultural heritage of the Don region in the 20th century. This process began in the XIX century. The tragedy of the Revolution and the Civil War nearly led to disappearance of the cultural heritage. From the second half of the XX century the Soviet State carried out a set of measures aimed at the formation of people’s historical consciousness and the construction of a “new past”. For this purpose were used traditional institutions (such as museums, archives, scientific institutions) and new ones were created (VOOPIK society, “Znanie” society). Thanks to the enthusiasm of the scientific and creative intelligentsia and the mass character of social initiatives, many monuments of history and culture were saved. However, the same resource was used for ideological and political propaganda.
Abstract: One of the basic tools for influencing the psychology of the society is the formation of the heroic symbols – a phenomenon of mass, largely mythological, consciousness. Symbols are generalized, purged from particularities, examples of individual or group behavior, to which society, in the person of the state, orientates its members in significant situations at a given historical moment. Becoming “historical”, heroic symbols turn into a value, enter into a stable structure of the people's consciousness – “historical memory”. The heroic symbols of the Great Patriotic War still remain the foundation not only of the people's memory of the war, but also of the value kernel of national consciousness as a whole. The symbols were both real facts and facts that had been processed in order to meet the requirements of the state system. This article studies the most significant military memorials of the Rostov region.
Abstract: Since 1979, there is a special kind of creative activity of people, fascinated by the romance of medieval battles, battles with the army of Napoleon Bonaparte, the battles of the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars. The ardor for historical and military historical reconstructions, recreating or imitating various scenarios of the past, arose in the South of Russia in 1986. Since then, more and more people have become involved in the world of role-playing games of different historical epochs, participating in tournaments, festivals or staging battles. Everywhere there are military-historical clubs where amateurs are united to reincarnate into heroes of different times and test themselves in combat craft or combat art. Participation in military-historical festivals allows people to become a participant in the significant events of the past for the time being. The romance of such events is estimated already by many thousands of adherents. Therefore, the number of military historical festivals is rapidly growing in Russia, among which there are reconstructions of the battles of the Great Patriotic, First and Second World War, as well as medieval knight tournaments. This article is devoted to the analysis of the origin and formation of military-historical reconstruction in the South of Russia. It also considers the positive process of development of the movement for military historical reconstruction, military historical festivals and similar events.
Abstract: The article deals with activity of Nikolai Ivanovich Bilevich as collector and student of traditional culture. Folk traditions occupied a significant place in his works. He actively used them both in his pedagogical and literary work. At the same time he can be considered as the founder of system of collecting folk material in Kursk province as he created the complex program of “descriptions of Kursk province” on which many local historians worked. His works have an unusually wide scope. They widely represent not only folklore and ethnographic, but also historical and statistical data and arts. Bilevich actively used folklore in his literary work. He reworked folk prose, especially fairy tales and true stories. He could use the folklore plot in his own author's work together with folk motifs and images, often creating an independent author's work on the basis of folklore. At the same time, he used folklore not only at the level of the story and figurative system, but also at the level of detail. Bilevich’s worls on local history represented the folk tradition of the South of Russia, especially of Kursk region, and at the same time touched other regional traditions. It should be noted that he was one of the few who paid attention to urban folklore tradition. His descriptions of Moscow and Kursk holidays so far have retained their relevance.
Abstract: Semantic and mythological opposition between the place of living and the place of dead is not final and definite in folk worldview reflected in the cycle of funeral and remembrance rites and corresponding beliefs, as shows the following article. The worlds of spirits and alive connect, separate, they come toward each other, depart and cross in different ritual and calendar times. The omens of death show how otherworld comes forward and breaks the safe boundaries of house, causing death in it, really destroying its limits as the customs of making apertures in roofs, ceilings, and walls take place to facilitate the agony. From this period, house became the habitual place of the death incarnated (corpse) and haunted by the loose human soul never departing for long from its forlorn body. The normal place turns into the house of the dead, the house in the hedge between two worlds — terrains of life and death, the notion is highly commonly reflected in number of omens, taboos and customs. For instance, in the house there death occurred is forbidden to close the doors and windows for the soul to come and go, to cook and clean because the soul could be in oven or in trash, to close the mirrors is recommended to prevent the soul to inhabit them, food and water are placed in special places for the spirit, different kinds of activities are forbidden, the house is marked from outside and neighbors are using apotropaic magic to avoid the contagious influence of the death etc. With time, when the funeral is over and the rites of individual remembrance cycle are gradually take place, the soul stops visiting its home, death is banished from it, its boundaries again turn strong and safe, taboos are lifted, the worlds of living and the dead are separated again. Nevertheless, this period of crossing of the worlds is not the only. During the inhumation the new living place for dead is created in cemetery making it symbolically closer to house. In spring, in Easter period, spirits of the ancestors use to return and live in their houses, there special customs and taboos are again held and domains of living and the dead are again close. The same happens then masses of people visit graves in spring and perform there the same remembrance practices as in home usually take place.
Abstract: The article deals with the anthropological aspects of the history of Russian revolutions. Primary focus is on the life of railway engineer Nikolai Aleksandrovich Gorinov, a native of the provincial merchant family. The example of the Gorinovs reveals the unrealized prospects for peaceful evolution in the social and economic development on the Don that took place at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, examines the possible motives for the personal political choice faced by family members during the events of the Revolution and the Civil War.
The first part represented the life story of the Gorinovs until the middle of 1915, characters and relations between family members. The main theme of the second part is the young man’s perception of the First World War events and the changes that are taking place with him. From an enthusiastic dreamer, the young man gradually becomes an experienced pragmatist. The study is based on the Gorinov's letters to his parents, preserved in the stanitsa Bokovskaya under the cladding of an old merchant's house.
Abstract: The Soviet authorities paid great attention to the media as means of formation of the image of the Soviet regime. The Soviet print media, primarily newspapers, had many facilities for propaganda and ideological influence hence they could form the public attitudes. The periodicals created certain images of the State political and economic campaigns, the specific characteristics of various social groups, as well as sent signs to readers as to who were “insiders” to the system and who were not. In the 1930s papers regularly published materials on the Cossacks that, on the one hand, showed how this social group interpreted the social and economic reorganization of the country and, on the other hand, formed a new image of the Cossacks themselves. The author of the article attempted a research on how the Soviet newspapers formed the image of the new Soviet Cossacks.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the little studied theme of the role of female servicemen in the Red Army of the war and their position in the men's team. Of the 800,000 women in the Soviet Union who participated in the war, most of them not only replaced the male soldiers who went to the front line, but also took part in the fighting. The author tries to explain how women, who by nature should give birth, educate, teach, save, but not kill, were able to become soldiers as required in the war. Women shared all the hardships of the front-line situation and bore the burden of war on a par with men. They died from bullets, shells and bombs, burned in airplanes, were wounded and became crippled without arms and legs. Some of them, having withstood all the trials, lost the gift of motherhood and could not create families. The author comes to the conclusion that the greatest merit of women in the army during the war years was that by their presence they allowed men to feel their own strength, to be courageous, to do their duty, to fight and win. This study is based on WW2 correspondence, letters and diaries of Soviet Jews who served in the Red Army, which were recently collected in the archives of the Diaspora Research Center at Tel Aviv University (2012–2017) and now, for the first time, are used for academic purposes.